Publications

Publications page banner

Welcome to the publications section of our website. Here you may find a continously-updated list of all NCGSH publications. 

2020

2020

Leibowitz, S., Green, J., Massey, R., Boleware, A. M., Ehrensaft, D., Francis, W., Keo-Meier, C., Olson-Kennedy, A., Pardo, S., Rider, G. N., Schelling, E., Segovia, A., Tangpricha, V., Anderson, E., & T’Sjoen, G. (2020). Statement in response to calls for banning evidence-based supportive health interventions for transgender and gender diverse youth. International Journal of Transgender Health, 21(1), 111-112. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2020.1703652

  • This statement is made in support for continued supportive healthcare for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth. Claims that “gender care” causes regret among youths are unsubstantiated. The small percentage (2.2.%) of those who regret gender medical transition, do so because of lacking support in their social groups. Stifling the supportive care for TGD through legislation devalues scientific evidence and medical protocols, and stems from misconceptions about TGD.

 Tatum, A. K., Catalpa, J., Bradford, N. J., Kovic, A., & Berg, D. R. (in press). Examining identity development and transition differences among binary transgender and genderqueer nonbinary (GQNB) individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, accepted for publication 01/28/2020. doi:10.1037/sgd0000377

  • On the basis of transformative framework, the research team has identified 7 milestones in the lives of transgender and non-binary people. This framework argues that there are specific steps in the lives of transgender individuals. After analyzing population of transgender and binary individuals who participated in the 2015 USTS survey, this study has found there is a statistically significant difference between experiences of genderqueer nonbinary individuals when compared to the binary transgender people. Applying transformative framework to the diverse group of genderqueer non-binary people, thus, does not account for the unique experiences of this unique group.

McGuire, J. K., Berg, D., Catalpa, J. M., Rider, G. N., & Steensma, T. D. (2020). Genderqueer Identity Scale. In R. R. Milhausen, J. K. Sakaluk, T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, & W. L. Yarber (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (4th ed., pp. 355-359). New York: Routledge.   

  • This study explores how valid and reliable is the Genderqueer Identity Scale (GQI). The scale is used in community and clinical settings to assess identification and expression of genderqueer and non-binary gender characteristics. The statistical analysis shows reliability of the scale, as well as good face validity (i.e., good translation of the concept of genderqueer identity) and good content validity (i.e., it measures and captures well different domains of genderqueer and genderfluid identity). 

McGuire, J. K., Rider, G. N., Catalpa, J. M., Steensma, T. D., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Berg, D. (2020). Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale—Gender Spectrum. In R. R. Milhausen, J. K. Sakaluk, T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, & W. L. Yarber (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (4th ed., pp. 359-362). New York: Routledge.  

  • The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale—Gender Spectrum (UGDS-GS) is a revision of Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale, which is used to measure gender dysphoria for adults and adolescent. The original scale was separate for assigned male and assigned female, not allowing for appropriate measurement for non-binary or genderqueer people. The scale is valid in both LGBQ and TGQNB groups. Statistical analysis has shown both convergent and discriminant validity, meaning that concepts that theoretically should be related (or not) were in reality indeed related (or not).

2019

2019

Shramko, M., Gower, A. L., McMorris, B. J., Eisenberg, M. E., & Rider, G. N. (online first). Intersections between multiple forms of bias-based bullying among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer youth. International Journal of Bullying Prevention, online ahead of print Oct. 24, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42380-019-00045-3

  • Youth with minority identities generally experience bullying at higher rates. This study analyzes 2016 Minnesota Student Survey of 5th, 8th, 9th, and 11th grade students in Minnesota.The results show that transgender and gender-diverse youths report higher rates of bullying on the basis of gender expression and other types of bullying than their cis-gender peers.

Bradford, N. J., Dewitt, J., Decker, J., Berg, D. R., Spencer, K. G., & Ross, M. W. (2019). Sex education and transgender youth: “Trust means material by and for queer and trans people.” Sex Education, 19(1), 84-98. doi:10.1080/14681811.2018.1478808

  • This study is based on interviews with 14 transgender youth (ages 14-18) about their experiences and needs in school sex education, and how they may or may not seek additional information from other sources. Majority of interviewees described school sex education as lacking appropriate content about sexual and gender minorities, thus, prescribing cisgender as a “norm.” Important recommendations for sex education include the diversity of content and the diversity of voices delivering it.

Eisenberg, M. E., Gower, A. L., McMorris, B. J., Rider, G. N., & Coleman, E. (2019). Emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors among transgender and gender diverse adolescents in city, suburban, town, and rural locations. The Journal of Rural Health, 35(2), 270-281. doi:10.1111/jrh.12311 

  • This study examines differences in emotional distress, bullying, and protective factors for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adolescents that reside in city, suburbs, town and rural areas of Minnesota. Rural TGD students have highest prevalence of bullying and emotional distress, urban TGD students have the lowest prevalence. This is due to more availability of supportive resources and organizations. Surprisingly, TGD students that live in suburbs show higher rates of depression and suicidal ideation than their peers in rural areas.

Eisenberg, M. E., Gower, A. L., Rider, G. N., McMorris, B. J., & Coleman, E. (2019). At the intersection of sexual orientation and gender identity: Variations in emotional distress and bullying experience in a large population-based sample of U.S. adolescents. Journal of LGBT Youth, 16(3), 235-254. doi:10.1080/19361653.2019.1567435

  • The analysis of a large sample from Minnesota Student Survey finds that youth identifying as both lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) and as transgender/gender diverse (TGD) had significantly higher levels of two measures of emotional distress and four measures of bullying victimization than those who report only identifying as LGBQ non-TGD or straight TGD.

Rider, G. N., Berg, D., Pardo, S., Olson-Kennedy, J., Sharp, C., Tran, K., Calvetti, S., Keo-Meier, C. L. (2019). Using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) with transgender/gender nonconforming children and adolescents. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 7(3), 291-301. doi:10.1037/cpp0000296

  • Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is used widely to screen for emotional or behavioral problems among all children and adolescents, including transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. However, the language for the questions and answer options on CBCL is not inclusive of youth who identify as transgender and non-binary. These limitations make it hard for parents/guardians who fill out the CBCL to provide answers that represent the reality, which results in the scoring and analytical errors. This study analyzes the difference in scoring templates (male/female) when used with TGNC children and adolescents and finds that choice in template does not significantly impact the score.

Rider, G. N., McMorris, B. J., Gower, A. L., Coleman, E., Brown, C., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2019). Perspectives from nurses and physicians on training needs and comfort working with transgender and gender-diverse youth. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 33(4), 279-385. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2018.11.003

  • The goal of this study is to hear from nurses and physicians about their training needs to provide competent care to transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth patients. Providers expressed concerns about being perceived as offensive in gender discussions with patients, which is why they over rely on clinical forms. They struggle keeping up with changing terminology and language to start a discussion. They pointed out the lack of training on competent TGD care and language during their education, and the need for networking with other providers, experienced in TGD care. Lack of educational opportunities perpetuates barriers for TGD patients in healthcare settings.

Rider, G. N., McMorris, B. J., Gower, A. L., Coleman, E., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2019). Gambling behaviors and problem gambling: A population-based comparison of transgender/gender diverse and cisgender adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 35(1), 79-92. doi:10.1007/s10899-018-9806-7

  • This study aims to address the lack of studies on gambling behaviors of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth. Using the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey data, it finds that TGD youth report greater involvement in gambling, especially TGD youth assigned male at birth. The reasons behind increased involvement in gambling among TGD youth need further research: TGD adolescents may turn to gambling to cope with discomfort related to puberty, mental health concerns and daily stressors.

Taliaferro, L. A., Harder, B. M.*, Lampe, N. M.*, Carter, S. K.*, Rider, G. N., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2019). Social connectedness factors that facilitate use of healthcare services: Comparison of transgender/gender non-conforming and cisgender adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 211, 172-178. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.04.024 

  • This analysis of 2016 Minnesota Student Survey has compared transgender and gender diverse (TGD) and cisgender youth on their levels of social connectedness associated with use of healthcare services. It has found that when TGD adolescents are more connected to their parents they increase use of primary and dental care. When TGD youth are more connected to nonparental adults they increase use of mental healthcare. Among cisgender youth, they show increased use of dental care when they’re connected to their friends, and increased use of mental healthcare when they are not connected to their parents.

Tatum, A. K., Catalpa, J., Bradford, N. J., Kovic, A., & Berg, D. R. (under review). Examining identity development and transition differences among binary transgender and genderqueer nonbinary (GQNB) individuals. Submitted to Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, August 2019.

  • On the basis of transformative framework, the research team has identified 7 milestones in the lives of transgender and non-binary people. This framework argues that there are specific steps in the lives of transgender individuals. After analyzing population of transgender and binary individuals who participated in the 2015 USTS survey, this study has found there is a statistically significant difference between experiences of genderqueer nonbinary individuals when compared to the binary transgender people. Applying transformative framework to the diverse group of genderqueer non-binary people, thus, does not account for the unique experiences of this unique group.

Comisky, A., Parent, M. C., & Tebbe, E. A. (in press). An inhospitable world: Exploring a model of objectification theory with trans women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, accepted for publication October 15, 2019.

  • Authors have surveyed 173 trans women (18 to 61 years old) who live in the US. Trans women internalize cultural standards of attractiveness and, as a result, experience body shame. Authors have also confirmed that the body shame is associated with disordered eating and intention to get silicone injections.

Bradford, N. J., Rider, N., & Spencer, K. G. (online first). Hair removal and psychological well-being in transfeminine adults: Associations with gender dysphoria and gender euphoria. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, online ahead of print November 22, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2019.1687823 

  • Transfeminine people commonly pursue hair removal interventions, including electrolysis and laser hair removal. The survey of 281 transfeminine people has shown that hair removal are significantly associated with major mental health symptoms, showing that they bear higher importance than being merely ‘cosmetic.’ Medical and mental health providers should enable and support further access to hair removal for transfeminine patients.

Bradford, N. J., Rider, G. N., Catalpa, J. M., Morrow, Q. J., Berg, D. R., Spencer, K. G., & McGuire, J. (2019). Creating gender: A thematic analysis of genderqueer narratives. [Special Issue]. International Journal of Transgenderism, 20(2-3), 155-168. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1474516

  • Authors used interviews to understand genderqueer identities. They have found that all transgender people go beyond cis-normative narrative, but genderqueer people go beyond binary understanding of gender. For them, language plays critical role in navigating and crafting their genderqueer experiences.

Catalpa, J. M., McGuire, J. K., Fish, J. N., Rider, G. N., Bradford, N. J., & Berg, D. R. (2019). Predictive validity of the Genderqueer Identity Scale (GQI): Differences between genderqueer, transgender and cisgender sexual minority individuals. [Special Issue]. International Journal of Transgenderism, 20(2-3), 305-314. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1528196

  • The newly developed Genderqueer Identity Scale (GQI) was used to see differences between binary transgender, genderqueer/non-binary populations (GQNB) and cisgender sexual minority people. The testing has shown that GQI has predictive validity to differentiate between GQNB from binary transgender and cisgender sexual minorities. GQI shows how GQNB shows stronger indicators of genderqueer expression and communication of non-binary status. Both binary and non-binary transgender groups report stronger knowledge of gender constructs and identity.

Rider, G. N., Vencill, J. A., Berg, D. R., Becker-Warner, R., Candelario-Perez, L., & Spencer, K. G. (2019). The Gender Affirmative Lifespan Approach (GALA™): A framework for competent clinical care with nonbinary clients. [Special Issue]. International Journal of Transgenderism, 20(2-3), 275-288.  doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1485069

  • GALA™ was developed as a response to the lack of frameworks in mental health that move beyond the binary understanding of gender. It pushes the following recommendations forward: (1) developing gender literacy;  (2)  building  resiliency;  (3)  moving beyond the binary; (4) exploring pleasure-oriented positive sexuality; and (5) making positive connections to medical interventions. GALA™ promotes gender spectrum as opposed to narrow two option category to allow clients explore all the gender possibilities.

Spencer, K., Rider, G. N., & Bradford, N. J. (2019). Introduction and overview to WAS initiative on transgender sexual rights. In A. Giami & E. Janssen (Eds.), Abstracts for the 24th Congress of the World Association for Sexual Health (WAS). International Journal of Sexual Health, 31(sup1), A97. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2019.1661941

2018

2018

Berg, D., & Edwards-Leeper, L. (2018). Child and family assessment. In C. Keo-Meier, & D. Ehrensaft (Eds.), The gender affirmative model: An interdisciplinary approach to supporting transgender and gender expansive children (pp. 101-124). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

  • This chapter looks at different assessment measures used by mental health professionals for prepubescent gender diverse children. Current assessment protocols are binary (boy or girl) in their nature, so clinicians need to be creative using them to move beyond the binary understanding of gender. The authors provide a range of actionable recommendations for assessment with existing protocols to provide holistic gender affirmative care.

Gower, A. L., Rider, G. N., Brown, C., McMorris, B. J., Coleman, E., Taliaferro, L. A., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2018). Supporting transgender and gender diverse youth: Protection against emotional distress and substance use. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 55(6), 787-794. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2018.06.030 

Gower, A. L., Rider, G. N., Coleman, E., Brown, C., McMorris, B. J., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2018). Perceived gender presentation among transgender and gender diverse youth: Approaches to analysis and associations with bullying victimization and emotional distress. LGBT Health, 5(5), 312-319. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2017.0176 

McGuire, J. K., Berg, D., & Catalpa, J. M. (under review). Genderqueer identity scale. In R. Milhausen (Ed.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.  Under review. 

  • This study explores how valid and reliable is the Genderqueer Identity Scale (GQI). The scale is used in community and clinical settings to assess identification and expression of genderqueer and non-binary gender characteristics. The statistical analysis shows reliability of the scale, as well as good face validity (i.e., good translation of the concept of genderqueer identity) and good content validity (i.e., it measures and captures well different domains of genderqueer and genderfluid identity).

McGuire, J. K., Rider, G. N., Berg, D., & Catalpa, J. M. (under review). Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale – Gender Spectrum (UGDS-GS). In R. Milhausen (Ed.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (4th ed.).  New York: Routledge. Under review. 

  • The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale—Gender Spectrum (UGDS-GS) is a revision of Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale, which is used to measure gender dysphoria for adults and adolescent. The original scale was separate for assigned male and assigned female, not allowing for appropriate measurement for non-binary or genderqueer people. The scale is valid in both LGBQ and TGQNB groups. Statistical analysis has shown both convergent and discriminant validity, meaning that concepts that theoretically should be related (or not) were in reality indeed related (or not).

Rider, G. N., McMorris, B. J., Gower, A. L., Coleman, E., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2018). Youth and provider perspectives on improving health care experiences for transgender and gender nonconforming adolescents: A mixed methods study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(2), S4. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.11.011

Rider, G. N., McMorris, B. J., Gower, A. L., Coleman, E., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2018). Health and care utilization of transgender and gender nonconforming youth: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 141(3), e20171683. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-1683

Strang, J. F., Janssen, A., Tishelman, A., Leibowitz, S. F., Kenworthy, L., McGuire, J. K., Edwards-Leeper, L., Mazefsky, C. A., Rofey, D., Bascom, J., Caplan, R., Gomez-Lobo, V., Berg., D., Anthony, L. G. (2018). Letter to the Editor. Revisiting the link: Evidence of the rates of autism in studies of gender diverse individuals. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(11), 885-887. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2018.04.023

Catalpa, J. M.McGuire, J. K.Berg, D. R., Fish, J. N., Rider, G. N., & Bradford, N. J., (online first). Predictive validity of the genderqueer identity scale (GQI): Differences between genderqueer and transgender individuals. [Special Issue]. International Journal of Transgenderism, online ahead of print January 21, 2019. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1528196

Rider, G. N., Vencill, J. A.Berg, D. R., Becker-Warner, R., Candelario-Perez, L., & Spencer, K. G. (online first). The Gender Affirmative Lifespan Approach (GALA™): A model for competent clinical care with genderqueer and nonbinary clients. [Special Issue]. International Journal of Transgenderism, online ahead of print January 16, 2019.  doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1485069

Bradford, N. J.Rider, G. N.Catalpa, J., Morrow, Q. J., Berg, D. R.Spencer, K. G., & McGuire, J. (online first). Creating gender: A thematic analysis of genderqueer narratives. [Special Issue]. International Journal of Transgenderism, online ahead of print May 25, 2018. doi:10.1080/15532739.2018.1474516 

Bradford, N.J., Dewitt, J., Decker, J., Berg, D.R.Spencer, K.G., & Ross, M.W. (2018). Sex education and transgender youth: “Trust means material by and for queer and trans people.” Sex Education19(1), 84-98. doi:10.1080/14681811.2018.1478808 

2017

2017

Eisenberg, M.E., Gower, A.L., McMorris, B.J., Rider, G.N., Shea, G., & Coleman, E. (2017). Risk and protective factors in the lives of transgender/gender nonconforming adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(4), 521-526. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.04.014

Spencer, K. (2017). Femininity. In K. Nadal (Ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender (pp. 546 - 548). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 

Spencer, K. (2017). Femme. In K. Nadal (Ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender (pp. 570 - 571). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 

  • This encyclopedia entry explains the definition and history of femme as a concept. Femme, used across gender identities, typically means someone who expresses and presents themselves congruent with culturally defined feminine norms. It is important to note that in a genderqueer community femme is not recreating heteronormative femininity, but rather “reclaiming” and defining it separate from stereotypical understanding of feminine in the Western culture.

 Spencer K.G., Iantaffi, A., & Bockting, W. (2017). Treating sexual problems in transgender clients. In Z.D. Peterson (Ed.), The Wiley Handbook of Sex Therapy (pp. 291-305). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Authors discuss sex therapy with transgender clients from an inclusive perspective to show the range of bodies and experiences that therapists will come across when working with this population. The themes discussed include sexuality concerns, medical interventions and post-surgical concerns, safer sex, dating, considerations for providers.

Spencer, K. G., & Vencill, J. A. (2017). Body beyond: A pleasure-based, sex positive group therapy curriculum for transfeminine adults. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 4(4), 392-402. doi:10.1037/sgd0000248 

Testa, R. J., Rider, G. N., Haug, N. A., & Balsam, K. F. (2017). Gender confirming medical interventions and eating disorder symptoms among transgender individuals. Health Psychology, 36(10), 927-936. doi:10.1037/hea0000497

2016

2016